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FROM KOPIAH TO PECI: Pan Islam and Arab Nationalism

FROM KOPIAH TO PECI: Pan Islam and Arab Nationalism

JAF. HUMANIORA. Pan-Islam or Panislamism was driven by the Ottoman Caliphate centred in Istanbul.[1] It is an intellectual movement and awareness among the world's Muslims of the importance of a sense of solidarity together in the struggle against Western imperialism and colonialism.

Pan Islam, provides awareness of the greatness of Islam. As well as destroying the sense of inferiority of Muslims throughout the world. Pan-Islam is the same as Ukhuwah Islamiyah or brotherhood among Muslims. Pan-Islam is what Western academics call panislamism, where they equate it with ideology and relate it to jihad or holy war.

The Pan-Islamic Movement is a movement that emerged in the mid-19th century AD. This movement, which was led by modern thinkers, was supported by the last Caliph of Islam, Sultan Abdul Hamid II. To legitimize the Pan-Islamic movement. The Sultan signed a call for Muslims throughout the world to rise against Western powers who wanted to destroy Islam.

Not just fighting the domination of colonialism with weapons. But we also fight with thoughts, culture and a sense of brotherly solidarity among Muslims or ukhuwah Islamiyah or Pan Islam. The document of revival and resistance was signed by Sultan Abdul Hamid II on 23 November 1914 AD. Also signed by Sheikh Al-Islam in Istanbul, Turkiye.[2]

The Sultan approved and fully supported the Pan Islamic movement which had been moving and fighting. In Western understanding, the jihad waged by Sultan Abdul Hamid II was only limited to a holy war or religious war in Islam. The Pan Islamic jihad was considered defeated when Turkiye lost World War I and collapsed in 1922 AD. They do not understand that the meaning of jihad is a form of struggle that is carried out seriously by every Muslim individual wherever and whenever.

The jihad referred to by the Sultan, such as studying or seeking knowledge, educating the younger generation, becoming an entrepreneur, becoming a journalist, becoming a historian, establishing parties, building troops and establishing organizations to advance the socio-cultural development of Muslims is part of real jihad.

Although the Pan Islamic movement sank with the collapse of the Caliphate. But Pan Islam has become the spirit or driving force of Muslims. So far, Muslims have been slumped and silent. Then it slowly started to move wildly. As a result, time after time, one by one, the Muslim countries controlled by Western colonialism became independent.

One of the Turkiye Ottoman cultures which is used as a symbol of the unity of Muslims is the head covering hat. A head covering hat that was worn by all Muslims at that time. Including Muslims in Southeast Asia. By wearing a Sultan's hat and the hat of the people of the Caliphate.

Muslims signaled that they were lining up behind the Caliphate. In Southeast Asia this hat is known as Kopia. Kopia has become a symbol of Islamic banking and is used as a cultural identity by the movement. We can see photos of movement members wearing black coffee beans.

The coffee cup is a Pan-Islamic symbol of the Ottoman Turks. Spread through the Hajj pilgrimage activities. Hajj pilgrims buy kopia as souvenirs from Mecca. Then distribute them to their place of origin when they return home. Pay attention to the typical Jewish hat which is smaller than the Islamic cap. This means that Semitic culture is returning.

Because many people like coffee. There are also coffee craftsmen appearing in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. By the kopia has become a symbol of Muslims to this day in Southeast Asia. The word kopia is derived from one of the names of the traditional Turkiye hats, namely kopye or kopje.

Snouck Hurgronje tried hard to stop the influence of Pan Islam in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). Apart from carrying out cooperative politics with soft ulama. Also advised to monitor fanatic clerics and people of Arab descent in the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch Colonial Government also stopped all channels of information and communication. Such as stopping the entry of mass media that contain Islamic writings and magazines from Turkiye Usmani.

Apart from that, it makes things difficult for Indonesian Muslims who are going on the Hajj. Because at that time Mecca and Medina were still one with the Turkiye Ottoman Islamic Caliphate. In this way, if a Muslim goes on the Hajj. The influence of Pan-Islam directly affected them.

One of the Hajj pilgrims who follows Pan Islamic thinking is Kiai Ahmad Dahlan. He studied a lot of the thoughts of the Pan Islam shop, Jamaluddin Alafghani. When he performed the Hajj at the beginning of the 20th century. After returning from Mecca, he became a movement figure and founded Muhammadiyah.

One of the information media that is prohibited from entering Indonesia is the Maklumat magazine published in Turkiye. Even though it is prohibited, the Turkiye edict magazine can still be smuggled into Indonesia. It entered via Singapore, then some were taken to Aceh, to Palembang, and to the island of Java.[3]

The defeat of the Ottoman Empire and Germany in World War I made the Pan-Islamic movement weak because the centre of the movement became weak. Slowly the Pan-Islamic movement disappeared, including in Indonesia. However, the seeds of resistance and awareness of Islam have grown in every region of the Islamic world. In every corner of the world, where there are groups of Muslims, they are starting to fight against Western (allied) domination. Either physical or mental resistance. Islamic organizations were established in the Dutch East Indies, such as Al-Irsyad, Syarikat Islam, Muhammadiyah and others.

After World War I, the Allies then infiltrated the territory of the Ottoman Turkek Caliphate. Where their agents instigated and persuaded the local population to rebel against the Caliphate. They helped with materials and weapons. So a national movement or nationalism emerged in the Turkiye government area, especially in the Arabian Peninsula.

In the Arab region, Arab nationalism is rising. With the strengthening of Arab nationalism and the defeat of the Ottoman Turks. The Dutch got a breath of fresh air and they no longer needed to try to stop Pan Islam in Indonesia. But the fire of Pan Islam burned in every corner of the Dutch East Indies. Meanwhile, on the other hand, Arab people in Indonesia have finally become pro-Arab nationalism. They abandoned Pan Islam from Turkiye and sided with the Arab nationality.

Taking advantage of the weakness of Turkiye who had just lost the war. The Arab people rebelled because they were influenced by Western political propaganda which wanted to destroy the Islamic Caliphate and extinguish Islamic symbols. So, the West created and supported pawns in the Ottoman Turkiye region. To hit the Ottoman Turkiye Islamic Caliphate from within. The allies actually don't care about Muslim nations. Because they just want to defeat Islam. Ending Islamic unity and separating Islam from its adherents. For Europe, Islam has gripped Europe for so long. In fact, what gripped Europe was feudalism, the church, and their own heart disease.

Among the people who were used as pawns of the West in destroying the Islamic Caliphate. For example, Syarif Husein in the Hijaz rebelled against the Ottoman Turk Caliphate and sided with the (Western) allies. Because they want to get support from allies for their political continuity. Then Syarif Husein's sons became kings in Arabia, which before the war was the territory of the Ottoman Turkek Caliphate, which had been around for more than 500 years. Faisal became king in Iraq, Abdullah in Jordan and Ali in Suriyah.[4]

This the Caliphate began to disintegrate from within. One by one the regions broke away. At the same time, Sultan Abdul Hamid II tried hard to defend Palestine from the Allies. However, a group of Arabs stabbed in the back in order to destroy the Turkiye Ottoman caliphate and preserve their political position.

This is not intended to vilify Arabs or the current Arab regime. But as a study material, politics can defeat brotherhood, faith and unity and can kill anyone. Until now, Palestine is in the grip of the Israeli Zionist Jews who are fortified by the Allies. Why did the Allies give Palestine to the Jews.

Because the Allies or Christians did not want to be directly hostile to Muslims. We realize that it is Jews who are hated by Muslims for Palestine now, not Christians or the West. They (the allies) do not want Palestine to be controlled by Muslims. Just want to end domination in the name of Islam. At the same times, they wanted to have their holy place in Jerusalem without having to fight again with the Muslims. Meanwhile, England also diverted Jewish refugees to Palestine so as not to overwhelm England.

In Turkiye itself, an extreme secular Turkiye nationalism finally emerged. Namely, a general named Mustafa Kemal Ataturk who was also a pawn of the Allies in defeating the Islamic Caliphate. Thereby the Caliphate was abolished by the Turkiye people themselves, whose ancestors had worked hard to build it with energy and wealth.

With sweat and blood but destroyed by their children and grandchildren. As a result of being consumed by nationalist propaganda and considering Western thought to be superior in the state. Besides, wanting to have his own power and drunkenly wants to be a hero. Not blaming the extreme secular Turkiye group, but just knowledge for us to think about.

If we look at nationalism with extreme secularism, it is very effective in destroying the power of Islam. Where the Muslims themselves attack each other, fight. Apart from destroying, extreme nationalism-secularism can also stop the power of Islam as in Indonesia during the New Order and other Islamic countries.

With the collapse of the Ottoman Turkiye Caliphate. Then the Pan-Islam movement (ukhuwah Islamiyah) ended. Arab nationalism continued to increase and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as we know it was established. So, when people from Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam or Muslims in Southeast Asia go on Hajj.

In the past, they used kopye or kopia as in the days of Mecca and Medina in the Ottoman Empire. Now it is slowly changing, and still is. We no longer see them, our Hajj pilgrims with black coffees like during the Caliphate, the Pan-Islamic era.

But Hajj pilgrims now wear white caps that cover their heads. In fact, it indicates that there has been a change in rulers in Mecca and Medina. From the last Muslim Caliphate of the Turkiye Ottomans to the kingdom of the Ibn Saud dynasty. From the name Saud, they named the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Maybe you have received a white cap souvenir from someone returning from Hajj. Likewise, when the Caliphate was still standing, Muslims returning from the Hajj distributed black coffee souvenirs which we use for prayers like now. Now, kopia has become part of the culture of Muslims in Indonesia and Southeast Asia.

Already!! all of that is history. Let's forget about the kopia and peci problems. We can wear it alternately when going to the mosque, attending celebrations or tahlilan. We don't need to worry about it anymore, it happened. From now on we organize a new Islamic world. Peace and friendship with other nations without the need for war like in the past.

We replace weapons with pens, we replace the battlefield with a room for deliberation and discussion. We build a new path together. It doesn't matter if it's East or West. Nor does it lie in Islam or non-Islam, but the problem "is within ourselves." Greetings Muslim Association.

Write: Joni Apero

Sy. Apero Fublic

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